The Documentary Hypothesis

One other thing we should clarify before going to Genesis, the Beginning: the Bible has numerous authors. Scholars have identified four major voices.


The first two are so named because of the name they use for God, of which more will follow. “D” is the author of Deuteronomy, as well as the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings and “P” is one or more writers believed to have worked during the time of the Babylonian Exile.

This is a theory, of course. But let’s note that Genesis begins with not one, but two origin stories.

This work, by the English poet and artist William Blake, shows the beginning as told in Genesis 1 and the first part of Genesis 2. In that version, God creates everything out of nothing, ex nihilo, over the course of seven days.


Genesis 2 tells the story of Adam and Eve, here portrayed by Michaelangelo, with God drawing Eve from Adam’s side while he is sleeping. This is before the business with the Serpent and the grief that followed.


Whether or not you accept the documentary hypothesis, it is clear that the Bible is a compilation of material from difference sources. Here it appears that two older stories were joined. The God of Adam and Eve definitely seems more approachable than the ex nihilo creator. He is called Elohim (literally, “the gods”) while the majestic Creator is called Jahweh, or more conventionally, Jehovah.

Now, on to the story.


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